The additives used in drilling and fracture stimulation fluids are contained in Safety Data Sheets or an SDS. An SDS lists these additives or chemicals, a description of them in their purest form along with the potential effects when used in this form, and precautions for the safe handling of them.
These sheets are used by companies to safely manage any risk associated with the use of these substances.
An MSDS needs to be interpreted properly by putting it in the context or situation in which a particular substance is used. That is, our drilling fluid consists of about 91% water, 4% native solids* and 5% off these additives or chemicals in total.
*Native Solids are suspended solids such as clay, sand, and other rock that are generated from drilled formations and subsequently dispersed into the mud system.
During the hydraulic fracture stimulation process, a fluid called fraccing fluid, or frac fluid, which primarily consists of water and sand (about 99%), is pumped down a well under pressure. Information regarding the sand and small percentage of chemicals used is provided in Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).
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Chemical tracers (on a scale of parts per million) are added to a small number of wells during the well appraisal stage to track production from each well interval.